**Illustrator Location: **
`Advanced Toolbar > PathScribe Stack > Extend Path Tool`

To use the **Extend Path **tool, place its cursor near the start or end of an open path (the path does not need to be selected). The cursor will change from a small crosshair to a tail-less arrow, and small lines (red, by default) will appear at the start and end of the path, perpendicular to it, which will dynamically indicate the start and end limits of the path during the drag.

Extend Path Tool Hovering end point

To edit the path, hold the mouse button down. Now a pair of gray lines will appear, indicating how the path would be extended (in both directions), given the current extension mode and parameters. By default, the current length of the path and its change in length will be displayed next to the cursor. The small red square indicates that the Extend Path tool is snapping to an anchor point (here, the endpoint of the original path).

Extend Path Bezier extension complete

Dragging the cursor along the extension preview will move whichever limit line was clicked on, showing the virtual new endpoint of the path. The cursor does not need to be kept directly above the extension preview, as the limit line will snap to the nearest position on the line. Releasing the mouse button finalizes the edit.

Extend Path Dragging the cursor along the extension preview

During the drag, by default, the cursor will snap to intersections of the extended path to other paths (or to the extended path itself); this will be indicated by a small circle around the limit line:

Extend Path Bezier Extension Intersection

Dragging backwards into the existing path will shorten it:

Extend Path Shortening Example

*Note:* If you drag from the final point of an open path, but then move the cursor so it is over the extension preview that comes from the first point of the path, the path will be extended in the reverse direction but the entire original portion of the path will be removed, as this is equivalent to shortening the path to zero length before starting to re-extend it.

**Illustrator Location: **
`Advanced Toolbar > PathScribe Stack > Extend Path Tool`

There are four different modes of path extension: Single Bezier, Constant Radius, Straight, and Spiral.

This is the default mode for extending a path. In this mode, no additional anchor points are added to the path. Instead, the cubic bezier curve that comprises the path segment being extended is simply expanded. Due to the mathematics of cubic beziers, this may lead to situations where the curve turns in unexpected directions or even reverses direction at a cusp point if the original bezier had only a single handle.

In this extension mode, the path is continued as a circular arc of constant radius. The radius value itself depends on which radius mode is active: Matched, Scaled, or Fixed. When Matched, the radius value will match the existing radius at the end of the path being adjusted. When Scaled, the radius value will be taken from the existing radius multiplied by a scale value. When Fixed, the radius value will be equal to the fixed value that is specified in the preferences. The circular arc can be extended up to 180°.

In Straight extension mode, the path is continued as a simple straight line.

In Spiral extension mode, the path is continued as a logarithmic spiral with the specified winding constant.

Extend Path spiral extension types

The radius value of the spiral at the start of the path extension depends on the Radius mode, just as with Constant Radius extensions, and the spiral always gets smaller.

When the *Constrain Length by Multiples *preference is enabled, a path can only be lengthened or shortened so that its total length (or change to its length, depending on the subpreference) is a multiple of the keyboard increment value (when using absolute measurements). So if the keyboard increment is set to 15 pt, the change would constrained to plus or minus 15 pt, 30 pt, 45 pt, etc. When using percentage measurements, changes to the path’s length are constrained to multiples of 5%.

**Illustrator Location: **
`Advanced Toolbar > PathScribe Stack > Extend Path Tool`

When the *Extend All Selected Open Paths *preference is enabled, *all *selected open paths will be simultaneously lengthened or shortened, in addition to the path under the cursor. Unless randomization is being used, the amount of lengthening or shortening is the same as the dragged path. When randomization has been enabled with the `Q`

key, the values for additional paths are randomly changed by an amount up to the maximum random variation value, which can be changed using the `O`

and `P`

keys while dragging.

Extend multiple paths randomly

**Illustrator Location: **
`Advanced Toolbar > PathScribe Stack > Extend Path Tool`

If the **Extend Path **tool is dragged starting from an empty area of the canvas, it will act as a marquee to select art objects. `Shift`

may be pressed as with the native selection tool to toggle the selection.

**Illustrator Location: **
`Illustrator Main Menu > Effect > AG Utilities > ...`

**Extend Path **is an Astute Graphics live effect for open paths that allows them to be extended (lengthened) or shortened. Extension can be made using four different methods, and randomization options are available.

As with most live effects, **Extend Path **appears in the main menu, under `Effect > AG Utilities`

. It can also be applied directly from the Appearance panel using the “Add New Effect” button at the bottom of the panel.

After applying the live effect using the menu item (or when clicking on the existing effect in the Appearance panel to edit it), the parameters dialog will appear:

AG Utilities Live Effects - Extend Path Parameters Dialog

Each end of the open path can be independently affected. The top section of the dialog pertains to the start of the path.

Specifies whether the extension length is an absolutely-specified value (for example, 24 pt) or a value relative to the path length (for example, 50%, which would make the path 1.5 times as long as it was originally).

Allows you to pick up all the parameters from the section of the dialog for the opposite end of the path, in cases where both ends of the path must be extended in the same manner.

The amount that the path will be extended or shortened. In Relative mode, the value is interpreted as a percentage of the original path length. Negative values will result in the path being shortened instead of extended.

The type of extension (ignored when shortening a path).

*Bezier Extension*

In Bezier extension mode, no additional anchor points are added to the path. Instead, the cubic bezier curve that comprises the path segment being extended is simply expanded. Due to the mathematics of cubic beziers, this may lead to situations where the curve turns in unexpected directions or even reverses direction at a cusp point if the original bezier had only a single handle.

*Constant Radius Extension*

In Constant Radius extension mode, the path is continued as a circular arc of constant radius. The radius value itself depends on which radius mode is active (see **Radius Mode**).

*Straight Extension*

In Straight extension mode (the default), the path is continued as a simple straight line.

*Spiral Extension*

In Spiral extension mode, the path is continued as a logarithmic spiral with the specified winding constant. Lower winding constants make the spiral’s radii become smaller more quickly.

AG Utilities Live Effects - Path Extension Types

Applicable with Straight extensions only; when enabled, the straight extension of the path will not be made at the original angle of the end of the path, but at the specified angle.

When specifying the straight extension angle, you can choose between an absolute angle or an angle that represents the change in angle (“Difference”) between the end of the path and the extension.

The final angle, either as an absolute value or as a difference in angles.

The final angle is flipped by 180 degrees.

All controls are identical to the “Start of Path” section, but control the other end of the path.

For Relative mode extensions, allows an absolute value to be added to the relative value.

For *Constant Radius *and *Spiral *extensions, limits the length of the extension based on the amount of path bend.

The maximum amount of path bend (in degrees), regardless of length.

For *Constant Radius *and *Spiral *extensions, one of the following: *Match Radius Mode (*the radius value will match the existing radius at the end of the path); *Scaled Radius Mode *(the radius value will be taken from the existing radius multiplied by the scale value); or *Fixed Radius Mode *(the radius value will be equal to the specified fixed value).

AG Utilities Live Effects - Extend Path Radius Modes

For *Scaled *and *Fixed *modes, the scale factor or fixed value.

Normally the curvature of the extension is in the same direction as the existing path; *Reverse Curvature *makes the extension curve in the opposite direction.

Allows randomization of several parameters, including length, radius, and the probablity of reverse curvature. Randomization is most useful when applying the **Extend Path **effect to a group of many paths, or in an effect stack in which a previous effect breaks a single path into multiple pieces, like **Dashify**.

Specifies either a linear distribution in random values (all values in the range are equally likely to be chosen) or a Gaussian distribution (central values in the range are more likely to be chosen).

Each random seed number leads to a different sequence of random values. Clicking the button picks a new seed, thereby changing the look of the artwork. To view or specify the seed number directly, `Option/Alt-click`

the button. This lets you recreate a previously-generated look.

Specifies the random variation in the length of the extension. For example, if the length is set to 20 pt, then a variation value of 25% would produce lengths that vary by as much as 20 pt × 25% = 5 pt, that is, between 15 pt and 20 pt; a variation value of 90% would produce lengths between 2 pt and 20 pt.

Constrains each final extension length (after randomization) to multiples of the specified step value while still remaining in the original range. For example, if the extension length is set to 24 pt with a random variation of 50%, then normally values of 12 to 24 pt would be produced. But enabling Step with a value of 5 pt would result in only values of 15 pt and 20 pt.

AG Utilities Live Effects - Extend Path Randomization

For *Constant Radius *and *Spiral *extensions, similar to *Length Variation *but affects the final radius value.

For *Constant Radius *and *Spiral *extensions, specifies the probability that the reverse curvature setting (when enabled) will be inverted to the opposite value.

As with all live effects, when enabled, changing a parameter will immediately update the artwork while the dialog is still open.